What exactly is "Intelligent Design? When one
considers the vast complexity of the universe, it is natural to question
its origin and how it was formed. Was it by some great design? Don't miss
the last two paragraphs!
The galaxies, stars and planets are all made of matter.
But what is "matter"? What is an atom?
Why are objects attracted to one another by the force of gravity
and what is gravity? Is there some supreme being that invented the universe?
This question has not been answered by today's science. However, there are
various patterns that we now recognize by observation, measurement and physical
models of science. In fact, sophisticated pattern recognition (Mandelbrot
theory) is being explored by scientists as a new scientific method of analysis
for the complexity of outer space.
The hydrogen atom consists of only two electric particles:
an electron and a proton, and yet these little devices have some amazing
properties. This atom can form itself from these two electric charges, and
it can also be disassembled and later reassembled. Atoms communicate with
one another, even at great distances although to a smaller degree. Some
80% of the universe is filled with hydrogen atoms, and most of the rest
is an assemblage of electric particles in the form of plasma gases. Therefore,
two of the primary elements of the universe are the electron and the proton,
neither of which have ever been viewed (although we are getting close to
having that capability). These little "things"deserve some consideration.
The electron and the proton gyrate, producing little
electromagnetic whirlpools. The electron rotates one million, million million
times a second (physicists may quibble about this high frequency estimate).
We do not yet have the capability to measure this internal frequency. However,
the wavelength is in the low ultraviolet region, which is the equivalent
amount of energy that escapes from an electron when the atom is blasted
by high energy. The proton frequency is much higher, and its emission wavelength
is correspondingly much shorter. This frequency also correlates with wavelength
measurements from a proton that is bombarded with high-energy particles.
The affinity between the electron and the proton
is very great. Unbelievably great. When atoms are blasted apart, the electrons
and protons can separate from one another. In any type of matter there are
generally many, many electrons and protons. In 12 grams of carbon-12, there
are almost one million, million, million million atoms. If we pull those
atoms apart and separate the electrons and protons, the force between them
is unbelievably enormous (see the penny puzzle).
In every atom, there are an even number of electrons
and protons, so the external electric forces tend to cancel. However, there
is a tiny bit of force that is left over that we know as "the force
of gravity" (see The Secret of Gravity).
Having an equal number of electrons and protons, each atom consists of a
number of hydrogen atoms (another way to look at the problem that physicists
probably wouldn't appreciate). The neutron is simply a compressed hydrogen
atom that is rather unstable by itself. The neutrons associate closely with
the protons in an atom, so the nucleus can acquire additional neutrons,
and the new atoms are called "isotopes". With these considerations,
we can view all types of mass as an assemblage (of one sort or another)
of hydrogen atoms. An atom can also gain or lose a few electrons, thus creating
ions. The point is that all mass consists of electrons and protons and in
pairs (hydrogen atoms).
The internal workings of these atoms can be incredibly
complex, with all sorts of orbit paths and resonances. My present endeavor,
to analyze these workings. In any case, it becomes clear that we
need to understand hydrogen in order to understand the universe,
and it only consists of two tiny particles! What an incredible and highly
intelligent design! The models of electrons, protons and atoms were all
devised from a vast number of measurements. These measurements are of the
force fields that surround them and the dynamic electromagnetic fields that
they create. Some of that energy can escape into space. The antenna radiation
equations date back at least to 1936 (Mesny), and they are extremely important
in understanding physical phenomena.
The two charges of the hydrogen atom are separated,
and we call that a "electric dipole". This dipole has an electric
field around it that can be, and has been, measured extensively. The two
charges attract one another, and the closer they get, the greater the force.
These properties are defined by a single mathematical equation that we call
"Coulomb's Law". It is (arguably) the most important scientific
relationship in existence, and yet it is quite old. It is a well-proven
law and has always been highly accurate. It has hardly changed over the
past centuries. The great scientist, Max Planck, called this and other such
laws that maintain themselves with time, "invariants". This formed
the the basis for his famous radiation equation and fundamental quantum
theory. Therefore, we can add these factors to our basic fundamentals, along
with the electron and proton.
We can also add Clausius's concept of "entropy"
which expresses the preference in nature for a given energy state, and Boltzmann's
Laws of Thermodynamics for gases and solids. We will then need the laws
of probability, which have never been proven but work out quite well. These
laws apply to the probabilistic motions of free atoms and electrons.
In the field of electromagnetics, there are a number
of fundamental laws and equations. However, most all of them depend upon
the laws mentioned above. Max Planck's Radiation Equation is essential in
assessing the characteristics of electron noise, heat radiation, physical
and chemical stable energy states, and radiation from a heated body. We
can also include Ohm's Law for electrical resistance, Gauss's Law for the
magnetic field, Maxwell's equations for field waves, Ampere's Law for electron
current, Henry's Law for electrical inductance, Faraday's laws of chemistry
and electrical capacitance, Joule for defining energy. Bohr's theory for
the atom is quite useful but has a fatal flaw in that it is abstract. There
are also a number of others.
There are several basic laws of importance that we
will also need in order to support the concept of Intelligent Design. One
of them states that "An object in motion tends to stay in motion".
This is the law of 'Inertia". As to the laws of electromagnetism, we
can add the law of "Biot-Savart" that relates the magnetic field
that is created by moving electrons. Most all of the laws of electronic
engineering depend on this law. Combining it with Coulomb's law results
in the Lorentz Force equation, so we don't really need to add Lorentz's
equation to our pantry. Another fundamental and perhaps the most important
invariant is "The Law of Least Action" (may
be called the "Law of Least-Known"), which was originally based
on mechanics but can be applied to electrodynamics, thermodynamics, potential,
time and space. Objects tend to move in the direction of least energy. Planck
described this law as interpreted by Helmholtz and stated that it plays
the principal role in the interpretation of all physical laws. This law
can be written in the form of an integral equation that represents the Conservation
of Energy. The sum of the external work is equal to the extra energy expended
in a process. There can be extra stored energy (in a system) that is not
an essential part of this equation since it does no work and is not expended.
Details on this can be found in Planck's Columbia
Lectures, Lecture VII.
So that's it. The two main elements of the universe
are the electron and the proton. The forces acting on them, the direction,
velocity and acceleration, all as described above. The principal of Least
Action is of greatest importance In fact, Helmholtz believed that it is
fundamental to the unification of the system of theoretical physics,since
it connects together the elementary quantities by which physical phenomena
are measured. It connects together the elementary quantities by which physical
phenomena are measured and from which physical laws can be interpreted.
It describes how electrical charges form masses, how motion occurs and how
mass is created and destroyed. "It connects together in a single equation
the relationships between quantities which possess, not only for mechanics,
the quantities space, time and potential". Two major concepts
are included in this theory: (1) and action in motion tends to stay in motion,
and (2) an action takes the direction of least force and least energy. These
actions and reactions form a universe of what we can accept as an "Intelligent
Design". But where did it come from, and how was it created?
The answers to this last question are simply "beliefs". The last
part of this story is a mystery yet to be solved.
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