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The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Versus "Characterization"The

HeisenbergUncertainty Principleasserts that the position of fast moving particles cannot be measured accurately (there are various interpretations of this principle that can be found at thisPlato link). Theuncertaintyof the position of a moving particle in space ish-bar divided by the momentum error of measurement of the particle, wherehis Planck's constant. Therefore, it was concluded that in order to measure the exact position, the exact momentum or velocity must be known or vice-versa.As a result, the quantum mechanics model of the hydrogen atom offers only an approximation of the position of the electron. But Heisenberg's Principle was derived mathematically, using matrix theory, and it has been shown that it has no relationship to the real world. Heisenberg's infinite matrices for the position and momentum do not commute. His central result was the canonical commutation relation, and this result does not have a clear physical interpretation ( see

Uncertainty Principle Ref.). One must ask: "If a theory has no physical interpretation, what good is it?" Apparently, this theory simply results in a probability function that must be interpreted.

The electromagnetic waves radiating from matter that is traveling at high velocity appear distorted due to the Doppler effect, and the Einstein/Lorentz mass varies with velocity. But just because the velocity and position of a moving object cannot be measured accurately does not mean that the actions of the system (position and momentum) cannot be accurately determined. In electronics, all measurement processes affect both the force and the velocity of electrons, but these errors are nulled out by a process known as "

characterization". Electromagnetic waves that move across an antenna wire have been measured very accurately, and they move at the speed of light. In fact, the shape and velocity of these waves have been characterized throughout all space, and no contradictions have yet been discovered.The process of

uses acharacterizationset of measurementsto make a determination. For instance,anyinstrument used to measure a function produces an error. Through the process of characterization of both the elements of the system and those of the instrument, the errors of measurement are reduced by compensation to the point of insignificance. If the Heisenberg Principle had been adopted for electromagnetic analysis, the assumed inaccuracieswould throw the results of all analyses into doubt.It is also possible to resolve this measurement problem by utilizing

two or more measurementsto characterize the errors, which is the standard method of the real world.The

delta-function,otherwise known as the "Heaviside impulse function", is a mathematical concept that can only be approximated in the real world. Nevertheless, it is used to easilycharacterize a systemand therefore has tremendous value in producing exact results as confirmed by measurement. This function was conceived byOliver Heavisidebut was not well thought of by mathematicians of the time. The delta function, in the limit, is a pulse that has infinite amplitude and zero width. No such function has ever been measured, and yet it is used profusely in electronics for predicting the responses of electrical circuits and mechanical systems. Some still struggle over this concept, and one approach is to utilize the concept of a "distribution function", which is based on non-ordinary functions that describe a physical quantity. The delta function can be represented by a distribution, which might be an integral equation, a limiting function, or a limit of a sequence of functions (A. Papoulis, "The Fourier Integral and Its Applications").The energy impulse function (not a

distribution) was derived in Chapter 10 of my book "Planck's Columbia Lectures", which correlates withPlanck's Radiation Equation, Plancks Energy State Equationand the measured characteristics ofwhite noise. In my opinion, the analytical methods of electronics are well-suited to the analysis of atomic physics as portrayed by Planck. The application of Heaviside calculus to electromagnetic fields yields solutions to the characteristics of white noise and antenna patterns of radiation.

Proof that electromagnetic radiating waves move faster than the speed of lightwas presented in a previous technical paper,"A Different Picture of Radiation(zipped download). Thebend as the wave velocity exceeds the speed of light.transverse waves