Understanding moving waves is essential in comprehending the dynamics of the universe. Electromagnetic waves are not as pictured in today's physics books, which is quite unfortunate. Measurements show that waves move along the antenna in a direction transverse to the radial direction. How can that be if electromagnetic waves are longitudina? There is an answer to this important question. The characteristics of electromagnetic fields was characterized nearly a century ago, resulting in an accurate and proven model of radiation. However, this radiation model was not fully utilized until recently. The illustration of dynamics electromagnetic wave motion was presented in my technical paper that was presented at the

IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium 2003 .In this paper, it was demonstrated that electromagnetic waves have vector properties and move in two directions simultaneously. The exponent of the wave vector is also a vector, and the results contradict the Einstein/Minkowski theory of relativitiy. It is quite amazing that this was not discovered years ago. Space is not curved. It is the radiating waves that exhibit dynamic curvature.Electrodynamic radiation waves do travel at velocities exceeding the speed of light, but not in the radial direction. As an example, the electromagnetic of the hydrogen atom was examined in my earlier works. The electromagnetic wave in the upper

graphicof theEnigmaspage, and on the left side of theMain page,meets the requirement of its wavefront not exceeding the speed of light in any direction. However, it never reaches stability, since its waveshape continually changes with time such that the transverse velocity never exceeds the speed of light. Therefore, the top wave isthe proper choice of the two to depict the wave motion surrounding the hydrogen atom, since it can never reach a stable state.notIn the lower graphic (and on the right side of the home page), the wave is propagating in two directions at once (it is in eigenvector form). It propagates radially at a fixed speed,

c, while the velocity of the transverse wave increases linearly with radius. Therefore, the radial wave moves outward in rays at the speed of light, while the speed of the transverse wave increases linearly with radius and is unlimited! Since the movement is cyclical and the wave radiates at the speed of light, it is the proper choice. ThusEinstein's assumptionthat "nothing can move faster than the speed of light" is flawed, andspherical radiating wavefronts do not exist. Also see the pictorial of an antennaradiating wavealong a dipole.The lower graphic was plotted using one of the eigenvectors in the Mathcad form of the electromagnetic wave equation.

To view the wave equation(Mathcad format), clickhere. Note that a small artificial offset was inserted in the denominator in order to prevent division by zero. Try to determine the time points of the equation along a ray in the graph. These points correlate to the time delays that occur as the wave moves through space at the speed of light.Why does the wave bend?Because there would then be no time delay, and information could be transmitted instantaneously.

The video (from the graphics

link at the upper left hand corner of the Enigmas page)will not have good resolution when viewed onWindows Media Player if it minimized, so please click on the maximize button. This video serves to illustrate the effects of a measurement time problem. With each frame successive frame that is displayed, thesampling rateof the wave is decreased, and thechanges accordingly. The results illustrate the visualization problem associated with anapparent shape of the curveinsufficient sampling rateof measurement points, which correlates to thestroboscopic effectof mechanical systems. This stroboscopic effect causes the shape of the curve to change drastically when the strobe rate (the number of samples per wavelength) becomes small, resulting in a low sampling rate. A somewhat similar effect occurs when the velocity of motion of an object approaches the speed of light, thus affecting the apparent shape of an object. In this video, the slowest sampling rate ofthree samplesof the illustrated wave represent the points along a smooth curve then appear as straight lines. In the measurements of the motions of atoms that are moving at extremely high velocities, and especially for the electrons within and atom, this effect must be taken into consideration in order to form a true picture of theactual wave, as compared to theapparent wave(an apparition).