Understanding moving waves is essential in comprehending
the dynamics of the universe. Electromagnetic waves are not as pictured
in today's physics books, which is quite unfortunate. Measurements show
that waves move along the antenna in a direction transverse to the radial
direction. How can that be if electromagnetic waves are longitudina? There
is an answer to this important question. The characteristics of electromagnetic
fields was characterized nearly a century ago, resulting in an accurate
and proven model of radiation. However, this radiation model was not fully
utilized until recently. The illustration of dynamics electromagnetic wave
motion was presented in my technical paper that was presented at the
Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium 2003
. In this
paper, it was demonstrated that electromagnetic waves have vector properties
and move in two directions simultaneously. The exponent of the wave vector
is also a vector, and the results contradict the Einstein/Minkowski theory
of relativitiy. It is quite amazing that this was not discovered years ago.
Space is not curved. It is the radiating waves that exhibit dynamic curvature.
Electrodynamic radiation waves do travel at velocities
exceeding the speed of light, but not in the radial direction. As an example,
the electromagnetic of the hydrogen atom was examined in my earlier works.
The electromagnetic wave in the upper graphic of the Enigmas
page, and on the left side of the Main page,meets
the requirement of its wavefront not exceeding the speed of light in any
direction. However, it never reaches stability, since its waveshape continually
changes with time such that the transverse velocity never exceeds the speed
of light. Therefore, the top wave is not the proper choice
of the two to depict the wave motion surrounding the hydrogen atom, since
it can never reach a stable state.
In the lower graphic (and on the right side of the
home page), the wave is propagating in two directions at once (it is in
eigenvector form). It propagates radially at a fixed speed, c, while
the velocity of the transverse wave increases linearly with radius. Therefore,
the radial wave moves outward in rays at the speed of light, while the speed
of the transverse wave increases linearly with radius and is unlimited!
Since the movement is cyclical and the wave radiates at the speed of light,
it is the proper choice. Thus Einstein's assumption that "nothing
can move faster than the speed of light" is flawed, and spherical
radiating wavefronts do not exist. Also see the pictorial of an antenna
radiating wave along a dipole.
The lower graphic was plotted using one of the eigenvectors
in the Mathcad form of the electromagnetic wave equation. To view the
wave equation (Mathcad format), click here.
Note that a small artificial offset was inserted in the denominator in order
to prevent division by zero. Try to determine the time points of the equation
along a ray in the graph. These points correlate to the time delays that
occur as the wave moves through space at the speed of light. Why does
the wave bend? Because there would then be no time delay, and information
could be transmitted instantaneously.
The video (from the graphics link at the upper
left hand corner of the Enigmas page) will
not have good resolution when viewed on Windows Media Player if it
minimized, so please click on the maximize button. This video serves to
illustrate the effects of a measurement time problem. With each frame successive
frame that is displayed, the sampling rate of the wave is decreased,
and the apparent shape of the curve changes accordingly. The
results illustrate the visualization problem associated with an insufficient
sampling rate of measurement points, which correlates to the stroboscopic
effect of mechanical systems. This stroboscopic effect causes the shape
of the curve to change drastically when the strobe rate (the number of samples
per wavelength) becomes small, resulting in a low sampling rate. A somewhat
similar effect occurs when the velocity of motion of an object approaches
the speed of light, thus affecting the apparent shape of an object. In this
video, the slowest sampling rate of three samples of the illustrated
wave represent the points along a smooth curve then appear as straight lines.
In the measurements of the motions of atoms that are moving at extremely
high velocities, and especially for the electrons within and atom, this
effect must be taken into consideration in order to form a true picture
of the actual wave, as compared to the apparent wave (an apparition).